A Broad Time-line of Anarchism in May Fourth Era China: 1908-1930

An unpolished chronological guide to the boom and bust years of the historical anarchist movement in China.


February: Zhang Ji leaves for Europe, visits Paris anarchists.

Tianyi bao 天义 报 (Journal of Natural Justice) ceases publication.

The first Shanghai Esperanto association is founded. [David Poulson, Eroshenko in China: Part One,<http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/esperanto/58322>, accessed May 17th, 2008.]

Japanese government begins repression of anarchist activity.

Liu Shipei founds Hengbao 恒 报 (Journal of Discussion [Boorman (1967), 412.]), printed in Tokyo but registered in Macao, to avoid government suppression. Inevitably, it was forced shut later in the year.

The Japanese anarchist movement is emaciated by both internal and external pressures; most anarchists shifted their focus to other philosophies.

A person by the name of Xin Qingnian writes “Chinese Anarchists in Tokyo” for Freedom, 22. ||


The first Chinese Esperanto Association is created in Shanghai. [David Poulson, Eroshenko in China: Part One,<http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/esperanto/58322>, accessed May 17th, 2008.]

Shifu released from prison, travels to Hong Kong to resume terrorist activities.

Liu Shipei returns to China to collaborate with the Qing authorities. [Boorman (1967), 412.]

Paris Doufu Company founded

The Guangdong sheng jiaoyu hui 广东省教育会 (Guangdong Educationa Association) is founded. [Chow (1963), 99.]


May 21: Xin Shiji 新世纪 (New Century) ceases publication with its 121st issue today. [Boorman (1967), 319.]

Wang Jingwei is imprisoned for plotting to assassinate a Qing official. ||


October 11: Wuchang Uprising

October: Republican Revolution

Liu Shipei flees to Chengdu, begins teaching at the Sichuan guoxue xuexiao 四川国 学学校. [Boorman (1967), 412.]

Sun Yat-sen andWu Zhihui meet up in London, where Wu helps Sun with writing some articles. [Boorman (1967), 418.]

Li Shizeng returns to China, where he is elected vice-president of the Beijing-Tianjin branch of the Tongmenghui (Wang Jingwei {freed from prison upon the fall of the Qing -DC} is the president). Zhang Ji accompanies Li from France. [Boorman (1967), 319.]

Song Jiaoren writes, “If one supports true socialism, it will not succeed unless you support anarchism and communism; neither social democracy nor state socialism is worthy of respect.” [Bernal (1968), 136].

Shifu becomes an anarchist and found Huiming xueshe (Crying in the Darkness Society) in Shanghai. It is the first Chinese-based anarchist society. ||


January:Wu Zhihui returns to China, staying with Sun Yat-sen at his new Republican headquarters. [Boorman (1967), 418.]

Janurary: Li Shizeng and other found the Jinde hui 进德会 (Society to Advance Morality), whose membership agrees to refuse to take political office. [Boorman (1967), 319.]

April: Li ShizengWu ZhihuiZhang RenjieWang Jingwei, and Qi Rushan establish the Liufa jianxue hui 留法俭学会 (Society for Frugal Study in France, “la Societe Rationelle des Etudiantes Chinois en France”). [Boorman (1967), 319.]

June: Wu Zhihui travels to Beijing to work with Cai Yuanpei on reforming written Chinese. [Boorman (1967), 418.]

Wu Zhuhui joins the Guomindang (this probably shouldn’t be mentioned as such, Wu was a member of Sun’s revolutionary organizations since before the existence of the GMD. -DC)

The Republic of China is established.

The Chinese National Esperanto association is re-organised and given a new name: the Esperanto Association of the Chinese Republic. [David Poulson,Eroshenko in China: Part One, <http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/esperanto/58322>, accessed May 17th, 2008.] ||


January: The first 30 participants in the Liufa jianxue hui of Li Shizeng enter College de Montargis, near Paris. [Boorman (1967), 320.]

February: National Assembly holds elections. Song JiaorenSun Yat-sen‘s deputy is seen as potential PM of RoC.

March 20: Song Jiaoren assassinated.

August 20: Huiming lu 晦鸣录 (Voice of the Cock Crowing in the Darkness) begins publication. See [Boorman (1967), 414.]

Septmber: {Shifu and others (?) attempt} “second revolution” against the Yuan Shikai government. They are quickly suppressed. Shifu flees to Macao with the Huiming lu project.Wu Zhihui (heads to London, where he has family), Cai Yuanpei goes to Germany with family, and Li Shizeng and Wang Jingwei head to France while other GMD politicos flee the country. (See [Boorman (1967), 414; 418; 320.] for a mention of the incident.)

Jueran julebu 决然 俱乐部 (Commitment Club), a labor organization, is started by Shifu.

Shifu debates with Jiang Kanghu over the relative merits of anarchism and socialism.


January 4: Yuan Shikai dissolves his parliament and annuls the constitution of the Repulbic. [Chow (1960), 371.]

February 8: Yuan Shikai makes the worship of Confucius and Heaven compulsory. [Chow (1960), 371.]

March 2: Restrictive laws are established which limit press freedoms. [Chow (1960), 371.]

April: Shifu moves operation to Shanghai and resumes publication of Minsheng. [Boorman (1967), 414.]

Early in the year: In Nanjing, the former members of the Socialist Party Nanjing branch Wu Wu( 无吾), Zhen Feng(真风), Zhi Dao(志道), and Qiu Tong(求同) established a “Anarchism Seminar.” The write and edit a booklet, 1915(《一 九一五》) which, however, isn’t published. [中国无政府主义史稿 (1989?), 158.]

July: Shifu founds the Anarchist-Communist Society

Li Shizeng,Wu Zhihui, and Cai Yuanpei exapnd the work-study program in France. [Chow (1960), 371.]

September 2: Japan sends military forces to China. [Chow (1960), 371.]

November 7: Qingdao, Shandong becomes an occupied territory of Japan. [Chow (1960), 371.]

December 4: Enforcement of restrictive publications laws in relaxed. [Chow (1960), 371.]

Ba Jin‘s mother dies.


January 18: The Twenty-one Demands are presented to the Chinese government. [Chow (1960), 371.]

March: Shifu dies. [Boorman (1967), 413.]

Boycott against Japan begins. [Chow (1960), 371.]


Li Shizeng , Wu ZhihuiCai Yuanpei, and Wang Jingwei meet in Tolouse to organize the establishment of some publications. [Boorman (1967), 320.]

May 7: Japan forces ultimatum of acceptance of the Twenty-one Demands upon China. [Chow (1960), 371.]

May 9: Chinese government submits to the ultimatum. [Chow (1960), 371.]

Summer: Huanqiu 环球 (“The World’s Chinese Students’ Journal – The Official Organ of the World’s Chinese Students’ Federation”) premiers in Shanghai.Wu Zhihui is a contributor. It runs bimonthly. [Chow (1963), 28.]

September 15: Xin qingnian 新青年 (New Youth, or “La Jeunesse”) founded as a political monthly. Contributors as of 1915 include Chen Duxiu (editor), Kao Yihan, Wang Shuqian, Li Yimin, Yi Baisha, Xie Wuliang, Liu Shuya. [Chow (1963), 29.]

October: H. E. Shaw writes “A Chinese Revolutionist” for Mother Earth 10, no. 8.

Zhonghua xuesheng jie 中华学生界 (Chinese Student’s World) is founded as a monthly in Shanghai. [Chow (1963), 30.]

A few women’s interest magazines are also founded this year including Zhonghua funu jie 中华 妇女界 (Chinese Women’s World), a monthly out of Shanghai, and Nuzi zazhi 女子杂 志 (Woman Magazine). [Chow (1963), 30.]

Datong 大同 (One world) founded. [Chow (1963), 31.]

Later in the year: Li Shizeng, with the aid of Wu Zhihui, founds the Qin’gong jianxue hui 勤工俭学会 (“Societe Rationelles des Etudiants-Travailleurs Chinois en France”, or Diligent Work Frugal Study Society). [Boorman (1967), 320.]

{Former entry: Diligent-work Frugal-study group is started in Paris by Li Shizeng, with the help of Wu Zhihui, who comes from London to help get the project going.}

December 12: Yuan Shikai proclaims self Emperor, dissolves Republic. [Chow (1960), 371.]

Minguo ribao 民国 日报 (Republic Daily) is founded this year. It is a mainstream paper also responsible for making socialist ideas acceptable to a large amount of the literate population. Wu Zhihui edited a science weekly for the paper. Other contributors included Sheng Dingyi, Cai Yuanpei, Zhu Zhixin, Hu Hanmin, Dai Zhitao, Hu Shi, Jiang Menlin, John Dewey, Zhou Zuoren, Gao Yihan, Hua Lin, Zhou Fohai, Feng Ziyou, Wang Jingwei, Chen Duxiu,Bertrand Russell, Liu Dabai, Zhang Binglin, Yang Xianjiang, Zhang Wentian, Lu Xun, Li Da, Li Hanjun, Qu Qiubai, Chen Wangdao, Jin Jiafeng, Cao Juren, and Guo Moruo. [Chow (1963), 128.]


March 22: Yuan Shikai is dethrowned. [Chow (1960), 371.]

February 15: In response to Yuan Shikai’s continued glorification of Confucianism at the beginning of the year, articles in New Youth vehemently criticize Confucianism. [Chow (1960), 371.]

Spring: 200,000 Chinese travel to France to help with the war effort. [Chow (1960), 371.]

June 6 [5?]: Yuan Shikai dies. Li Yuanhong becomes President. Duan Qirui becomes Premier. [Chow (1960), 372.]

The locus of Chinese radicalism moves to Beijing. [中国无政府主义史稿 (1989?), 159

Guo Feng Daily(《国风日报》) edited by Jing Meijiu(景梅九) was the first to publish anarchistic articles publicly. Besides, Guo Min Gong Bao(《国民公报》) and Shun Tian Times(《顺天时报》) etc also published articles about anarchism from times to times. Guo Min Gong Bao even serializedKropotkin’s Autobiography, which was very popular then. However, it was not long before Guo Min Gong Bao was banned and the translator arrested. [中国无政府主义史稿 (1989?), 159.]

Wu Zhihui decides to return to China. [Boorman (1967), 418.]

June 15: Minzhong 民钟 (People’s Tocsin), which begins as a semi-annual (later quarterly) anarchist / socialist / philosophical journal, is founded in Tokyo. Li Shichen is the editor. Contributors would later include such writers as Yu Songhua, Li Jinxi, Hu Haichen, Fan Shoukang, Yang Changji, Yang Yufu, Zhang BinglinCai Yuanpei, Liang Souming, Li Dazhao, Zhang Dongsun, Carsun ZhangWu ZhihuiGuo MoruoMao Dun, Feng Yulan, Zhu Qianzhi, Gu Jiegang, and Zheng Zhenduo. [Chow (1963), 32.]

August 15: Lv Ou zazhi 旅欧杂志 (Study in Europe Magazine), semimonthly, published in Chinese in Paris. Associated with the Qin’gong jianxue hui.Wang JingweiLi Shizeng, and Cai Yuanpei are the editors. Contributors include Wang Shijie, Li Congtong, Wu Zhihui, Zhang Jingsheng, (Zeng) Zhongming, and Li Yin’gong. The Shijie she 世界社 (World Society / Le Monde), of which Li Shizeng and Wu Zhihui are members, publishes a book, Lv Ou jiaoyu yundong 旅欧 教育运动 (The Chinese Educational Movement in Europe) in Tours simultaneous to the first issue of this magazine. [Chow (1963), 33.]

November 1916: Minsheng stops publication. Most of the members of Minsheng she leave Shanghai, dispersing in different directions. Xiang Tian 湘田 returned to Guangzhou, where he became a school teacher. Lin Junfu (林君 复) and his sister’s love affair was impeded by their family. As a result, his sister committed suicide and he went to be a monk. Shifu’s brother, Shi Xin(石心), followed Liang Bingxian (梁冰弦) to Singapore and taught in Yang Zheng School(养正学 校). Zheng Peigang(郑佩 刚) stayed in Shanghai and took advantage of being a sailor in the “Feng Tian” ship of Tai Gu corporation to distribute some publicity materials about anarchism. [中国 无政府主义史稿 (1989?), 158.]

December 3: Bingchen xueshe is founded by Liang Qichao and students who had returned to China after studying abroad.

December 26: Cai Yuanpei becomes chancellor at Peking University. [Chow (1960), 372.] No specific date given in [Boorman (1967), 320.]

Minsheng 民声 (“People’s Voice” / Voice of the People) founded in Changsha by the Minsheng zhazhi she 民声杂志社 (People’s Voice Magazine Society), according to Chow Tse-tsung. {The magazine had already been published for a few years by this point according to the reprints I got from Lenny Kwok in Hong Kong [ISBN-4-89281-035-5 C3022 P6000E]. It was published as Minsheng (for the Chinese version) and La Voco de l’Popolo (Esperanto version) simultaneously starting December 12th, 1913. Before that it had been called Huiming lu 晦鸣 录 ({Bird-call in the Dark -DC} / {The Cock Crowing Before Daybreak -DC} Record of the Cock Crowing in the Dark) and was only published in Chinese. -DC} [Chow (1963), 33.]

Sino-French Educational Association is started by Li Shizeng and others in Paris.

Jingye zazhi 竸业 杂志 (Strife Magazine) founded in Fengdian. [Chow (1963), 31.]

Kao Yuhan, Li DazhaoHu ShiWu Zhihui, Liu Fu, Ma Junwu, Su Manru, Yang Changji, Shu Xincheng, and Wang Tongchao begin contributing to Xin qingnian. [Chow (1963), 29.]

Qun She (群社) is established on the basis of “Anarchism Seminar.” The publish a volume of Ren Qun(《人 群》) and Annual Report(《周 年报告》). [中国无政府主义史稿 (1989?), 159.]

Liu Shipei retires to Tianjin. [Boorman (1967), 412.]


January: Wang Jingwei returns to China from Paris. Chu Minyi takes over his role as editor of Lv Ou zazhi in Paris. [Chow (1963), 33.]

January 10: Hua gong zazhi 华工杂志 (Chinese Laborer Magazine), a semi-monthly is founded in Paris by the Diligent-work Frugal-study group as a partner publication of Lv Ou zazhi. Contributors include Cai YuanpeiChu MinyiLi Shizeng, Liu Hou, and Li Yin’gong. This magazine is oriented towards Chinese workers in France, while Lv Ou zazhi tends to be for students. As such, it advocates worker’s issues like labor organizing and resistance to workplace injustice. [Chow (1963), 39.]

February 20: Dingsi 丁巳, a rather conservative, though progressive, political journal is founded with Li Zhonggong, a former student of Zhang Bingling, as editor. The magazine reprints speeches and writings of people like Cai YuanpeiLiang Qichao, Feng Guozhang, and Zuan (Duan?) Qirui. [Chow (1963), 34.]

March 1: Taipingyang 太平洋 (The Pacific Ocean) is founded in Shanghai. It aims to be a monthly, but is really published irregularly by the Commercial Press. It’s editors are Li Jiannong and Yang Duanliu. Wu ZhihuiWang Jingwei, Tao Menghe, Li Dazhao, Wang Shijie, Hu Shi, Cai Yuanpei, Liu Fu, Zhang Yihu, Yuan Changying, Wu Fangji, Hu Shuhua, Tian Han, Liang Congdai, Zhang Jiluan, Wu Yugan, Li Siguang, Chen Yuan, Yang Shuda, Shen Xingren, and Zeng Zhongming are contributors. [Chow (1963), 37.]

March 15: Xin guomin 新国民 (“The New Citizen”) founded in Shanghai by the Xin guomin zazhi she, printed by Zhonghua shuju. Many contributors to this magazine of politics and culture have ties to the GMD. For example, Wu Zhihui writes for Xin Guomin, and calls it “a sister magazine” of Taipingyang. Other contributors include Ye Chucang, Yuanyuan, Yisu, and Wang Wuwei. The magazine officially supports a “responsible-cabinet” form of democratic government. [Chow (1963), 37.]

March 16: February Revolution in Russia ousts Czarist rule. [Chow (1960), 372.]

April: Xueyi 学艺 (“Wissen und Wissenschaft” / {Academic Learning -DC}), a intellectual magazine (irregular and quarterly) often concerned with Western ideas of both the humanities and the natural sciences, is founded. It is published in Paris, Beijing, and Tokyo. [Chow (1963), 34.]

April 20: Vol. 1, No. 2 of Dingsi is published. [Chow (1963), 34.]

Spring: Zheng Peigang once went to Peking University to discuss questions concerning anarchistic campaigns with Huang Lingshuang( 黄凌霜) andYuan Zhenying(袁振英). [中国无政府主义史 稿 (1989?), 159.]

Chen Duxiu becomes Dean of the School of Letters at Peking University. [Chow (1960), 372.]

May: The anarchist Shi she 實社 (Society for Reality), “the first anarchist organization in northern China” ([中国无政府主义史 稿 (1989?), 159.]) is started atBeida by {Chao} Taimou, {Li} Zhenying, Jingcheng, and Chaohai. [Chow (1963), 35.] Or, according to 中国无政府主义史稿, it is Huang Lingshuang,Yuan ZhenyingJing Cheng(竟成), and Hua Lin(华林).

June 13: President Li dissolves parliament. [Chow (1960), 372.]

July: Shi she ziyou lu 實社自由录 (Liberal Record of the Society for Reality) is founded as the (irregular) organ of the Shi sheHuang Lingshuang is the editor. Contributors include Ou Shengbai, Li Zhenying, Hu Lin, Chao Taimou, Jiannong, Chaohai, Zhenming, and Zhenfeng are contributors. Articles attributed to them generally omit the surname. The journal also publishes translations of western anarchists like TolstoyKropotkinAlexander Berkman, and Emma Goldman (Gaoman Nvshi ??女师). The Minsheng she (Minsheng zazhi she) aids with the publication. [Chow (1963), 35.]

The Shi she publishes a brochure named Shi She Zi You Lu( 《实社自由录》) devoted to introducing anarchistic theory, which was edited by Wu Zhihui(吴稚晖) and entitled by Li Shizeng(李石曾). Two volumes were published and most of the articles in it could also be found in publications like Guo Feng DailyShu Tian Times(《顺天时报》), Fa Yan(《法言》). [中国无政府主义史 稿 (1989?), 159.]

Summer: Zhou Zuoren, Hu Shi, and Liu Fu join on as faculty at Peking University [Chow (1960), 372.]

Government changes leadership and orientation constantly over the summer. By August Feng Guozhang assumes presidency.[Chow (1960), 372.]

September 25: Vol. 2, No. 3 of Huanqiu is published in Shanghai. [Chow (1963), 28.]

October 4th: October Revolution in Russia

October 6: Civil war breaks out between North and South China. [Chow (1960), 372.]

November: Liao Huanxing and other activists begin organizing the Xincheng duan feng tuan, the organization later to publish Duan feng. [Chow (1963), 42.]

Novermber 7: October Revolution succeeds in Russia. [Chow (1960), 372.]

The Minsheng zazhi she begins to clandestinely publish an irregular anarcho-syndicalist paper, Gongren baojian 工人(宝鉴) (Workers’ Mirror) that advocated unionism, the general strike, direct action, and criticized Marxism. Zhang Ji (under the pseudonym Puchuan) and Xinche, among others, are contributors. [Chow (1963), 38.]

200,000 Chinese people traveled to Europe to help in the war effort. While in France, they were introduced to socialism, anarchism, and the Bolshevik movement. [Spence 1981, 151]

A journal entitled Tuosheng 鉈声 (Tocsin Sound) appears in Tianjin, published by Chihli (Zhili -DC) shengli diyi zhong xuexiao (治理胜利 -possibly incorrect)第一中学校 (Chihli Province First Middle School). It’s unclear whether this is an anarchist publication or not. [Chow (1963), 36.]

Jinbu qingnian 进步青年 (Progressive Youth), a monthly is founded in Beijing, published by the Zhongguo qingnian chuban she. [Chow (1963), 36.]

Ba Jin‘s father dies.

Cai Yuanpei invites Liu Shipei to work at Beida, where Cai is chancellor. Liu Shipei contributes writing to Zhongguo xuebao 中国学 报 (China Academic Journal) and, in 1919, Guogu zazhi 国故杂志 (National Heritage Magazine). [Boorman (1967), 412.]

Li Shizeng returns to China. [Boorman (1967), 320.]

Tao Menghou, Cai Yuanpei, Wu Yu, Qian Xuantong, Cheng Yensheng, Chang Naite, Zhang Shenfu, Yun Daiying, Zhang Shizhao, Mao Zedong, Li Quanshi, Li Zhenying, Liu Yenling, and Hu Shanheng begin contributing to Xin qingnian. [Chow (1963), 29.]

Liang Bingxian edited and published two brochures, Shi Jie Feng Yun( 《世界风云》) and Shi Jie Gong Hui(《世界工会》), introducing social revolutions and unions organizing methods in other countries. [中国无政府主义史稿 (1989?), 158.] ||


January: Xincheng duan feng tuan founded in Hunan by Liao Huanxhig, Liao Yansun, Cai Yaokun, Huang Junzhang, and Liu Pingyuan. [Chow (1963), 42.]

January 15: Xing Qingnian begins to publish all of its articles in the vernacular language. [Chow (1960), 372.]

February: Li Dazhao becomes chief librarian at Peking University. [Chow (1960), 372.]

March 1: The last issue of Lv Ou zazhi, no. 27, is published in Paris. [Chow (1963), 33.]

March 18: Fa zheng xuebao 法政学报 (Journal of Law and Political Science), a monthly, is founded by teachers and students at Beida College of Law and Political Science. Wu Tongxu and Gao Yuan are editors. Lin Caiping, Zhang Shizhao, Carson Zhang, Zhu Qianzhi, Wang Chonghui, Cai YuanpeiHu ShiLiang Qichao, He Bingsong, Tu Xiaoshi, Ma Yinchu, Gao Yihan, Dewey, and Bertrand Russell are contributors. [Chow (1963), 40.]

March 20: Ladong 劳动 (Labor, “La Laboristo”), China’s first syndicalist magazine {This may be inaccurate now, Gongren baojian, still being published after a year of activity in 1918, may predate Laodong. On other hand, Gongren baojian may not be classified as a syndicalist magazine. See [Chow (1963), 38.] -DC}, is started by Wu Zhihui in Shanghai. It publishes monthly until July of the same year. Chen DuxiuCai YuanpeiLi ShizengHuang LingshuangHua Lin, Zhenfeng, Yun DaiyingLiang Bingxian, and Yu Jiaju contribute. The magazine’s outlook was explicitly anarchist. [Chow (1963), 41.]

April 18: Mao Zedong founds the New People’s Study Society in Changsha.

[Chow (1960), 373.]

May: Ziyou Lu 自由錄 (Records of Freedom), an anarchist journal published by the Shi she {see Chow (1963), 54).}, lists that translated versions ofGoldmanBakuninKropotkin, and Tolstoy have all been published in China. [Dirlik (1991), 154.]

May: Mintuo‘s publication (publishers are the Zhonghua xueshu yanjiu hui 中华学 术研究会 China Academic Research Group)) moves from Tokyo to Shanghai. [Chow (1963), 32.]

May: No.2 of Shi she‘s Ziyou lu is published. It ceases publication later in the year. [Chow (1963), 35.]

Summer: Wu Zhihui completes a new dictionary, aimed at language reform, which incorporates phonetic guides to writing. Begins to teach Chinese at Tangshan School of Railways and Mining shortly afterwards. [Boorman (1967), 418.]

July 20: Laodong ceases publication after issue No. 5 of the journal. [Chow (1963), 41.]

August: Vol. 2, No. 1 of Mintuo is published in Shanghai. The magazine becomes a monthly from now on. [Chow (1963), 32.]

Fall: Mao Zedong becomes assistant librarian at Peking University. [Chow (1960), 373.]

October 13: Xin Chao She gets organized by students at Peking University. [Chow (1960), 373.]

November 11: WWI ends. [Chow (1960), 373.]

November 16: Chinese Civil War ends. [Chow (1960), 373.]

December 12: Tuan feng 端风 (“Custom Reform”), an annual aimed at replacing backwards culture with progressive democratic ideals, is first published in Hengyang, Hunan. It is an organ of the Xincheng duan feng tuan (Custom Reform Corps of Xincheng). Contributors include some of those involved in anarchist publishing projects. For example, Yun Daiying and Yu Jiaju had contributed to Ladong earlier in the year. Other contributors are Liao Huanxing (editor), Chen Qitian, Lin Yulan, and Cai Yanqiu. The organizer of the corps that published the journal was Liao Huanxing, an activist who would later turn to communism. The journal reprinted writing by Cai YuanpeiKang Youwei, Yan Fu, Zhang Jian, Liu Pannong, Lin Sun, Shen Yinmo, and Hu Shi. [Chow (1963), 42.]

December 22: Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao begin editing a new journal, Meizhou pinglun 每周评论 (Weekly Critic or “Weekly Review”). The journal is focused, like Xin Qingnian, with culture and society, but is more concerned with explicitly political issues and affairs than its predecessor. Contributors include Wang Guangqi (Ruoyu), Zhou Ziren (Zhongmi), Zhang Shenfu (Qi), Gao Yihan (Hanlu), Hu Shi, and Zhan Weici. [Chow (1963), 40.]

Zhou Zuoren, Lin Yudang, Fu Sinian, Zhu Jingnong, Lo Jialun, Wang Xinggong, Chen Daqi, Lu Xun, Yu Pingbo (see also Xin chao and Guomin), Tang Erhe, Huang Lingshuang,

Yuan Zhenying, Ouyang Yuqian, Hua Lin, Li Jiannong, Song Chunfang, and Chen Hengzhe begin contributing to Xin qingnian. [Chow (1963), 29.]

Zhen xue hui 真学会 (Truth Society), a student New Culture group, is founded by students in Tianjin. [Chow (1963), 52.]

Minsheng (published by Minsheng she), Ziyou lu (published by Shi she), Taiping (published by Ping she), and Renqun (published by the Qun she) all cease publication. There are not many active anarchist magazines left. [Chow (1963), 54.]

1,749,339 industrial workers in China. [Chow (1960), 381.]

25 strikes occur this year, only 12 are reported. [Chow (1960), 388.]


January 1: Xin chao 新潮 (New Tide, or “The Renaissance”) is founded among Beida students. It includes contributions form such luminaries as Hu ShiLi DazhaoCai Yuanpei, and Lu Xun. Chow describes it as the “most influential student magazine.” Though it is not radical or anarchist, it does criticize tradition, promote science, and advocate societal reform. Fu Sinian and Luo Jialun are editors. Other involved writers include Tan Mingqian, Wang Jingxi, Xu Yanzhi, Ye Shengtao, Kang Baiqing, Ouyang Yuqian, Yu Pingbo (see also Xin qingnian and Guomin), Song Chunfang, Zhang Shenfu, Wu Kang, Liu Binglin, Chen Dacai, Yang Zhensheng, Shen Xingren, Pan Jiaxun, He Siyuan, Mao Zishui, Jiang Shaoyuan, Gao Shangde (Gao Junyu), Wu Jingchao, Zhou Zuoren, Wang Xinggong, Sun Fuyuan, Sun Fuxi, Guo Shaoyu, Meng Shouchun, Feng Yulan, Zhu Ziqing, Zhu Qingnong, Jin Yuelin, and Yuan Tongli. [Chow (1963), 43.]

On the same day as the founding of Xin ChaoGuomin 国民 (“The Citizens”), a more patriotic student paper, is established in Beijing with the support of professors like Cai YuanpeiLi Dazhao, and Chen Duxiu. After May 4th, the magazine shows a left-leaning stance on political issues. It was also very anti-Japanese. Chen Bao’e, Chen Zhongfan, Huan Jianzhong, Meng Shouchun, Yi Kenyi, Zhou Changxian, Zhou Bangshi, Huang Rikui, Lu Meiseng, Xu Deheng (Chuseng), Qu Xuanying, Yi Qunzuo, Song Chunfang, Xu Baohuang, Yang Yizeng, Fei Quetian, Chang Naide, Huang Shaogu, Li Zezhang, Zhou Binglin, Yu Pingbo (see also Xin Qingnian and Xin chao), Luo Jialun, Chen Guyuan, Chen Guoqu, Huang Kan, Wu Zhihui, Lan Gongwu, Yang Changji, Zhang BinglinLiu ShipeiMa Xulun, Wang Dong, Wu Mei, and Zhang Dongssun were all contributors. [Chow (1963), 44.]

January 20: Anarchists from the recently disbanded Minsheng sheShi shePing she and Qun she reconvene as the Jinhua she and collaborate on publishing a new anarchist journal, Jinhua 进化 (Evolution, or “La Evolucio”). Contributors to the magazine are Huang LingshuangHua Lin, and Ou Shengbai, among others. The project aims “to spread the principle of mutual aid in society, making it know to everybody and practicing it.” The magazine is published simultaneously in Shanghai and Tokyo (Tokyo publishers are the Jinhua zazhi she). [Chow (1963), 54.]

February: Xin jiaoyu 新教育 (“The New Education”) monthly founded. It is published in Shanghai, but with the aid of Beida and other schools. Jian Menlin is the editor. Cai Yuanpei, Tao Zhixing, Huang Yanpei, Guo Bingwen, Jiang Qi, Hu ShiJohn Dewey, Tang Erhe, Sun Benwen, Ren Hongjun, Liao Shicheng, Chen Baoquan, Wang Jingxi, Guo Renyuan, Chen Gongbo, Ma XulunLi Shizeng, Yu Rizhang, Liang Qichao, Wang Maozi, and James Yen are contributors. The magazine advocated educational reform along the lines laid out by John Dewey. It was part of the broader New Culture Movement. [Chow (1963), 54.]

March: a “…list in Jinhua 进化 (Evolution) cited additional works by Kropotkin, plus works by GraveReclus, and Louis Blanc.” [Dirlik (1991), 155.] See also [Wusi shiqide shetuan 五四时期的社团 4: 325-51.]

Issue No. 3 of Jinhua is published as a special dedication to Shifu. [Chow (1963), 54.]

In the article entitled “Shi Fu xiansheng jinian ganyan” 师复先 生纪念感言 (Remembering Liu Shifu -DC), Zhi Dao writes “there isn’t much indication thatanarchism has become more popular since Liu Shifu’s death. This is regrettable. Though we still have many comrades, from my point of view, few can match Liu Shifu.” -DC translation. [Jinhua, Vol. 1, No. 3 (March 1919).]

March 20: Beida students and teachers found a traditionalist magazine, Guogu zazhi 国故杂 志 (National Heritage) monthly. It lasts for four issues. Liu Shipei and Huang Kan are editors-in-chief. Chen Hanzhang, Ma Xulun, Kang Baozhong, Wu Mei, Huang Jie, Tu Xiaoshi, Lin Sun, Chen Zhongfan, Meng Shouchun, and Wu Shutang are editors. [Chow (1963), 44.]

April: Xin jiaoyu prints a special issue (Vol. 1, No. 3) on the philosophy of John Dewey. [Chow (1963), 54.]

May 3: Gongxue hui 工学会 (Work-Study Society), a 55-member strong anarchistic student group, is established in Beijing. [Chow (1963). 49.]

May 4: May Fourth Incident. 34 students arrested. [Chow (1960), 374.]

May 5: Student Union of the Middle Schools and Institutions of High Learning in Peking established. [Chow (1960), 374.]

May 7: National Humiliation Day

Wuqi rikan 五七日 刊 (May Seventh Daily) founded in Beijing by Chen Bao’e, also editor. It is an organ of the Student Union of Peking. It has an anti-Japan, anti-government stance. [Chow (1963), 45.]

May 14: Government militarilly intervenes in student demonstrations. Formation of student unions and solidarity protests begin and last for four days. [Chow (1960), 374.]

May 15: Xin Zhongguo 新中国 (New China) founded in Beijing. Chen Qixiu, Sun Zhiyi, Zhang Houzai, Shao Piaoping, Tao Menghe, Hu ShiJohn Dewey, Zhu Qianzhi, Tu Xiaoshi, He Siyuan, Tao Xingzhi, Liu Shuya, Xie Liuyi, Bao Tianxiao, Song Chunfang, Zhou Soujun, Gao Yihan, Zheng Zhenduo, Ye Chucang, Shu Xincheng, Qu Qiubai, and Zhang Xuan are all contributors. Though it is a moderate magazine overall, many of the contributors showsocialist and even utopian tendencies. [Chow (1963), 45.]

May 18: Students call a general strike (begun the next day) in an emergency meeting of the of the Peking Student Union. [Chow (1960), 374.]

May 23: Wuqi rikan is suppressed in Beijing, operation moves to Tianjin. [Chow (1963), 45.]

“Peking Government suppresses student press and activities.” [Chow (1960), 374.]

May 26: Nankai rikan 南开日刊 (Nankai Daily), a publications of the Nankai School, Tianjin, begins publication. The stated aim of the paper was patriotic, but the editor’s (Zhang Zhi) interest in anarchist theory and the New Village Movement shown through. Menghen and Yu Henian (see also Xin ren) were contributors. [Chow (1963), 51.]

June 1: Martial law declared in Beijing. 1,150 students are arrested over the next three days. Other students begin street speeches. Reminiscent of the Wobbly free speech fights. [Chow (1960), 374.]

June 3: June Third Movement, mass arrests. [Chow (1960), 2.]

June 6: Nankai rikan suspended. [Chow (1963), 51.]

June 8: Xingqi pinglun 星期评论 (Weekly Review) founded as an organ of the GMD. It is printed in Shanghai. Contributors include Dai Zhitao, Shen Dingyi, Sun Disan (eds.), Zhang Qi, Liao Zhongkai, Hu Hanmin, Zhu Zhixin, Li Hanjun, Shen Zhongjiu, Sun Yat-sen, Chen Guofu, Lin Yungai, Hu Shi, Tao Menghe, Liu Dabai, Kang Baiqing, Luo Jialun, and Jiang Menlin. [Chow (1963), 55.]

June 10: Nankai rikan resumes publication. [Chow (1963), 51.]

June 11: Chen Duxiu arrested. [Chow (1963), 40.] [Chow (1960), 374.]

June 15: The Xin Hunan 新湖南 (New Hunan), published by the Xin Hunan she of Yale Medical College in Changsha, is founded with the goals of republican anti-Confucianism, personal liberties, gender equality, and anti-family and pro-labor attitudes. Long Yuying and Li Qipan are editors. Many contributors identify with anarchism. [Chow (1963), 64.]

June 16: Juewu 觉悟 Awakening begins to be published as a supplement to Guomin ribao. [Chow (1963), 128.]

June 23: Nankai rikan is suspended, but resumes again after two days. [Chow (1963), 51.]

June 29: Hu Shi takes over editorship of Meizhou pinglun starting with No. 28 [Chow (1963), 40.]

July 1: Shaonian Zhongguo 少年中国 (Young China, or “Journal of the Young China Association”) founded. Li Dazhao is editor, working out of the central offices of the Young China Association in Beijing. The viewpoints expressed in the paper ranged from nationalistic to anarchist, including contributions from: Zuo Shunsheng (later editor), Wang Guangqi (Wang Ruoyu), Tian Han, Yi Junzuo, Wei Siluan, Tai Shuangqiu, Zhang Shenfu (Zhang Chi), Yun Daiying, Zhang Wentian, Yu Jiaju, Chen Qitian, Zheng Boqi, Li Huang, Zeng Qi, Zhou Taixuan, Yang Zhongjian, Liu Renjing, Kang Baiqing, Wu Junsheng, Xiao Chunu, Shen Yi, Hu Shi, Zhou Binglin, Chen Bao’e, Huang Rikui, Zong Baihua, Cai Yuanpei, Xiang Jingyu, Xu Deheng, Liu Yingshi, Wang Xinggong, Liang Souming, Tu Xiaoshi, Li Shizeng, Liu Boming, Lu Zhiwei, Fang Dongmei, Li Da, Mao DunZhou ZuorenHua Lin, Ying Xiuren, Wang Duqing, Guo Moruo, Shen Zemin, Zhu Ziqing, He Luzhi, Yun Zhen, Li Zhiren, Zhang Mengjiu, Yang Xianjiang, Xu Yenzhi, Sa Mengwu, and Chen Zhidu. [Chow (1963), 45.]

July 12: The Tianjin xuesheng lianhehui bao 天津学生联合会报 (“The Tianjin Student”, or the Journal of the Tianjian Student Union) is founded. It is frequently published, starting with once every three days, then later becoming a daily. It was popular as far as student union papers go; circulation averaged around 4000 copies of the paper, though sometimes it reached 20,000. Zhou Enlai was sometime editor. Hanyue, Wu Baojian, and Chen Zhidu were contributors. The paper was not anarchist, but did incite armed revolt, strikes, and tax-protest. [Chow (1963), 52.]

July 14: A new paper, the Xiangjiang pinglun 湘江评论 (Xiang River Review, or “The Shian Kian Weekly Review”), is founded out of Changsha. It is an organ of the Student Union of Hunan Province and emulates the style and outlook of Meizhou pinglun. Many articles indicate socialist leaning of the authors, which include Mao Zedong, Zizhang (Emi Siao), Jianfan, Jiaoru, Zibo, Renmin, and Zisheng (Siao Yu, Xiao Yu). [Chow (1963), 64.] Mao Zedong is editor. [Chow (1960), 375.]

July: Nvjie zhong 女界鐘 (Woman’s Bell), a weekly paper published by the student union of Zhounan Girls’ Middle School, is founded with the aim of gaining freedom and equality for women through “struggle, creativity, and the solution of the women problem by women.” Mao Zedong contributes articles. [Chow (1963), 64.]

July 20: “Problems and Isms” debate starts. [Chow (1960), 375.]

End of July: Liang Bingxian establishes a daily, Minfeng rikan 民风日刊 (Tendency of the Citizens Daily). [Chow (1963), 66.]

August 1: Jianshe 建设 (“The Construction”), a monthly GMD magazine with politics inline with those of another GMD organ, Xingqi pinglun, is founded in Shanghai. Published by the Jianshe she 建设社. Zhu Zhixin, Hu Hanmin, and Dai Jitao are editors. Sun Yat-sen, Liao Zhongkai, Zou Lu, Li Shizeng, Lin Yungai, Yi Baisha, Xu Chongqing, Yu Shude, Li Renjie, Wu ZhihuiLi Dazhao, Jiang Shaoyuan, Sun Fo, Shen Zhongjiu, Ma Junwu, Hu Shi, and Ren Hongjun are contributors. According to Chow Zezong, it “advocated study of anarchism, materialism, revolution.” [Chow (1963), 56-7.]

August 11: Zhang Jingyao, a military governor, suppresses the publication of Xiangjiang pinglun, a radical paper for Hunanese students, which Mao Zedong was a contributor to. The paper was on its fourth issue. [Chow (1963), 64.]

August: Issue 7 of Xin Hunan is published with a new editorial board including Mao Zedong, Su Yunpo, Lai Lian, Zhang Xiaoqian, and Xiao Dongsheng. Four further aims of the magazine are stated: “(1) to criticize society; (2) to remodel thought; (3) to introduce learning; (4) to discuss problems.” [Chow (1963), 64.]

A new weekly paper, Minfeng zhoukan 民风周刊 (Tendency of the Citizens), continues in the place of Minfeng rikan. It is edited by an Liangji (Liang Bingxian) and published in Guangdong at the headquarters of the Group-of-Ten Corps of Guangdong. Ou Shengbai, Qian Zhixiu, and Chen Qiulin all contribute articles. Many writers are also anarchists. [Chow (1963), 66.]

August 16: Nankai rikan ceases publication after issue No. 60. [Chow (1963), 51.]

August 24: Xin shenghuo 新生活 (New Life) is founded. Li Xinbai, director of Beida (Peking University) Press, is the editor. Through this magazine Li Dazhao, under the pseudonym “Gusong”, begins to express his communist leanings. Cai YuanpeiHu Shi, Gao Yihan, Chen Duxiu, Liu Fu, Cheng Shewo, Tao Menghe, Wang Yuanfang, Shen Jianshi, Fu Sinian, Luo Zhanglong, Wang Xiangrong, Zhou Zuoren, Gao Yuhan, Wei Jian’gong, Tang Erhe, Xu Yanzhi, Chen Yuqin, Liu Yunlin, and Li Jinhui are also contributing writers. [Chow (1963), 46.]

August 31: With No. 37 of Meizhou pinglun, the journal is forced closed. [Chow (1963), 40.]

September 1: The Xin xue hui 新学会 (New Study Society) of Beijing founds Jiefang yu gaizao 解放与改造 (Liberation and Transformation), a soon-to-be famous monthly that promoted the New Culture Movement. It is simultaneously printed in Shanghai as an organ of the Yanjiu xi {Jinbudang [Chow (1960), 375.]}. Liang Qichao, Zhang Dongsun, and Yu Songhua are the editors. Carson Chang, Liu Yanling, Liu Nangai, Hu ShiMao DunZhou Fohai, Tai Shuangqiu, Zhao Zichen, Pan Gongchang, Cheng Shewo, Chen Yuqin, Hu Xiansu, Shu Xincheng, Guo Shaoyu, Qu Qiubai, Yun Zhen, Li Dazhao, Jiang Qi, Lan Gongwu, Jiang Boli, Peng Yihu, Fei Juetian, Lan Gongyan, Xu Zhimo, Yi JunzuoZheng Zhenduo (See Xin shehui), Geng Jizhi (Geng Kuang), Yu Shude, Liu Wendao, Zhu Guangjian, Lin Caiping, Song Jie, and Qu Shiying were contributors. [Chow (1963). 47.]

September: The publication of Wu Zhihui‘s new dictionary (see note about it’s completion in Summer 1917) creates a lot of interest in language reform. [Boorman (1967), 418.]

September 13: No. 54 of Tianjian xuesheng lianhohui bao is published. [Chow (1963), 52.]

September 25: At the beginning of the school year, Ruan Yicheng, a sophomore, and some classmates at Zhejiang Province First Middle School form the Corps of Ten for National Salvation. With Ruan Yicheng as the editor, they publish a single issue of their journal called Ming xing 明星 (Bright Star). The magazine was written for a lay audience. [Chow (1963), 60.]

October: Xin Hunan is suppressed by the government. [Chow (1963), 64.]

October 10: Tianjian xuesheng lianhohui bao is halted by the police because of a protest against the Tianjian police that the magazine had been organizing. [Chow (1963), 52.]

Ruan Yicheng and Cha Mengzhi found a new magazine, Shuangshi 雙十 (Double ten). [Chow (1963), 60.]

October 11: No. 21 of Minfeng zhoukan is published. [Chow (1963), 66.]

October 30: Vol. 2, No. 1 of Xin Chao hits the stands. [Chow (1963), 43.]

November 1: Xin shehui 新社会 (“The New Society”) founded with the sponsorship of the Beijing YMCA. A new issue premiered every ten days. Zheng Zhenduo, also a contributor to Jiefang yu gaizao, is the editor. Qu Shiying, Qu Qiubai, Geng Kuang (Geng Jizhi), Xu Dishan, Song Jie, Wang Tongzhao, Zhu Jianzhi, and Mei Siping are contributors. This was an anti-traditionalist New Culture paper with specifically anarchist sympathies. The paper made its way to Sichuan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Manchuria. [Chow (1963). 48.]

November 1: The Shuguang she 曙光社 (Dawn Society) publishes the first issue of their paper, Shuguang 曙光 (“The Dawn”) in Beijing. The society was made up of 14 students from Beijing university, including Beida, China University, and Beijing Higher Normal College. Song Jie is the editor of the paper. Wang Tongchao, Fan Yusui, Liu Jingjun, Geng Jizhi, Qu QiubaiZheng Zhenduo, Qu Shiying, and Xu Yanzhi contribute to the paper. Articles from socialist magazines, the writings of Chen Duxiu, and translations of Kropotkin also make it into the journal. Liberal, anarchist, and socialist leanings. [Chow (1963). 48.]

Xin shengming 新生命 (New Life) is published by the Tianjin-based Zhen xue hui 真学会 (Truth Society), a group founded a year prior. Their magazine is modeled on the Beijing-based Xin shenghuo. Yu Lanzhu (Yu Fangzhou) and Wang Tianlin are notable contributors. The aim of the magazine is defined as being both negative and positive {an anarchistic framing -DC}. First, the group promotes the destruction of “bad old customs, institutions, ethics, personalities, behaviors, and opinions” while producing conructive “new plans and theories in order to organize a new society on the foundation of liberty, equality, fraternity, and mutual aid.” The aims are emblematic of New Culture student thought. [Chow (1963), 52.]

Daoyan banyuekan 导言半月刊 (Guiding Opinion Semimonthly) is founded in Tianjin. One of its aims is “to banish struggle in human society by the spirit of mutual aid.” [Chow (1963), 53.]

Zhejiang xin chao 浙江新朝 (New Tide of Zhejiang), a weekly newspaper organized by students from across Zhejiang Province, is first published, in Hangzhou. Ruan Yicheng and Ruan Ducheng {probably brothers -DC} represent their school as contributors to the publication. Alongside them are Huang Zongfan, editor, Wang Fuquan, Ni Shendu, Shi Cuntong, Zhou Bodi, Yu Xiusong, and Yu Tanfen. The paper advocated student action in labor struggles, individual freedom, and mutual aid as means to stop exploitation and bondage, both physical and intellectual. The outlook was less patriotic than other papers, instead advocating an internationalist and anarchist humanism. [Chow (1963), 60.]

November 15: Issue No. 2 of Xin shengming is published. [Chow (1963), 52.]

Lv Ou zhoukan 旅欧周刊 (Study in Europe Weekly, or “Journal Chinois Hebdomadaire”) is founded by Chinese students in France. Zhou Taixuan (Zhou Wu) is the editor. Contributions come from many of the leaders of the Work-Study Movement including Li ShizengWang JingweiHua Lin, Sheng Chengzhong, Wei Shizhen (Wei Siluan), Wang Guangqi, Wang Duqing, and Zhang Shanglin. [Chow (1963), 67.]

November 20: Gongxue 工学 (Work-Study) magazine is founded by the Gongxue hui. Contributors include Shao Zhengxiang, Zhou Yutong, Sun Langgong, Fan Yusui, Zhou Zuoren, Chu Tunan, and Chang Naide. Socialism, anarchism, and the New Village Movement were all discussed. [Chow (1963). 49.]

November: Xinqun 新群 (New Masses, or “The Social Reconstruction”), is founded by Zhongguo gongxue 中国工学 (Chinese Public Institute). It is a short-lived monthly, only seeing four issues in print. Zhou Junnan is editor in chief. Wang Jingxi, Liu Binglin, Yang Yizeng, Liang Qiaoshan, Cao Renyuan, Wu Fangzhi, and Chen Dacai are all editors. It advocated gradual socialist reforms to change the nation, was critical of the Soviet Union, and tried to apply the theories of both Dewey and Kropotkin. [Chow (1963), 57.]

December 1: Issue No. 3 of Xin shengming is published. Police suppress its publication afterward. [Chow (1963), 52.]

The Min xing 閩星 (Fujian Star, or “The Min Sheng Semi-Weekly”) is founded in Zhangzhou, Fujian. The editor is Chen Qiulin. Contributors include Chen Jiongming (Lu’an), Li WenfanChen QiyuXie YingbaiWang JingweiZhu ZhixinHu Hanmin, and Liangji (Liang Bingxian). The paper was explicitly anarchist, socialist, anti-statist, anti-militarist, and anti-imperialist. It promoted new intellectual ideas and the literary revolution. The staff ofXin chao and Meizhou pinglun help circulate the paper in Beijing and Shanghai. [Chow (1963), 66.]

December 8: Vol. 1, No. 3 of Min xing is published. In this issue a contributor defines the May Fourth Movement as “(1) cosmopolitanism instead of statism, (2) doctrine of masses instead of individualism, (3) doctrine of mutual aid instead of struggle, (4) liberalism instead of doctrine of restrain, (5) principles of creativity instead of traditionalism and conformism, (6) humanism instead of religion, and (7) doctrine of equality instead of class.” [Chow (1963), 66.]

December: Issue 2 of Duan feng, coalescing around a radical critique of the traditional family structure, is published. Some articles are published in more vernacular language, aimed at a larger audience. [Chow (1963), 43.]

Police suppress the Zhejiang xin chao because it promoted “family revolution, regards labor as sacred and loyalty and filial piety as vices.” The magazine had just published its third issue. [Chow (1963), 61.]

Society for the Study of Socialism is established in Beijing, soon to be followed by Shanghai, Guangdong, and Hong Kong. [Chow (1960), 375.]

December 16: Founding of Gongdu 工读 (Work and Learning), a semimonthly student paper aimed at examining the intersection of labor and student issues. Zhao Shiyan is the editor. [Chow (1963). 49.]

December 20: Liu Shipei dies. [Boorman (1967), 411.]

December 25: Vol. 1, No. 8 of the Min xing is published. [Chow (1963), 66.]

December 31: Jiaoyu yu zhiye 教育与 职业 (Education and Vocation), an organ of the National Association of Vocational Education, publishes a special issue on student self-government. [Chow (1963), 38.]

“ …by 1919 there was more anarchist literature available in Chinese than any other socialist literature. A survey of anarchist writings from this period shows that, through the accumulated efforts of anarchists over the previous decade, an interested Chinese reader could have gained a more comprehensive understanding of anarchism through Chinese language materials than was possible for any other Western social and political philosophy.” [Dirlik (1991), 154.]

Anarchist groups in China attempt a unification with the progressive movement.

Modeng she 摩登社 (Modernity Society) founded. They publish a monthly out of Shanghai, Modeng 摩登 (Modernity). [Chow (1963), 58.]

Rechao 热潮 (Warm Tide) begins to be published in Changsha.

Ziyou 自由 (Freedom) is founded. [Chow (1963), 68.]

The Society for the Study of Socialism, a mainland-based group sharing the same name as an earlier Japanese-based Chinese anarchist group, is founded. At its peak there were 110 members of various schools of socialism. The union was short-lived, however, and the members gravitated towards smaller ideological affinity groups.

Ren Hongjun, Zhou Jianren, Chen Wangdao, Lian Souning, Pan Gongzhan, Zhu Xizi, Wang Guangqi, and Shen Jianshi begin contributing to Xin qingnian. [Chow (1963), 29.]

Li Shizeng returns to China from Paris, seeking financial aid for the Work-Study Movement.

John Dewey comes to teach in China.

Ba Jin‘s grandfather dies.

Liu Shipei dies.

Zhou Enlai is part of an anarchist group, Tianjin Juewu She 天津组织觉悟社 ||

66 strikes take place this year, 26 are reported. [Chow (1960), 388.]


January 1: Li DazhaoChen Duxiu, Jiang Zuobin, Shi Cuntong begin contributing to the GMD’s Xingqi pinglun. [Chow (1963), 55.]

Min xing publishes Vol. 2, No. 1 of the magazine. [Chow (1963), 66.]

Five educators at Wuben Girls’ Middle School in Shanghai begin publishing a journal of feminist and anarchistic ideas, Xin funv 新妇女 (The New Woman). Alice C. Dewey (married to John Dewey), Lu Qiuxin (ed.), Qian Jianqiu, Jingguan, Guo Miaoran, Fu Yanchang, Shen Dingyi, Chen Wangdao, and Dora Black all contribute writing to the magazine. [Chow (1963), 76.]

Jianjiang pinglun 錢江评论 (Qiantang River Review) is founded by students at Zhejiang Province First Normal School. Feng Xuefeng, Wang Jingzhi, Pan Mohua and Cao Zhuren are contributors. Shen Zhongjiu is involved. This paper was heir to Zhejiang xin chao, spreading ideals of free-thought. It was influenced by anarchism, particularly in that authors contributed anonymously. [Chow (1963), 82.]

January 4: Students from Beida‘s Law School, with the aid of Cai Yuanpei, organize and begin publishing a revolutionary anti-Marxist, anti-progressive, pro-anarchist magazine, Fendou xunkan 奋斗旬刊 (Strife). It is irregularly published for the next four months. Contributors include Yi Jiayue (Junzuo) and Zhu Jianzhi, who are both editors, Guo Mengliang, Chen GuyuanZheng Zhenduo, Wu Tianfang, and Lu Linggen. The journal rejects Dewey‘s philosophy. The first issue is a special issue on the concept behind the title of the magazine, “strife”. [Chow (1963), 68.]

The Student Union of Peking University (Beida) founds a weekly, Beijing Daxue xuesheng zhoukan 北京大学学生周刊 (Peking University Student Weekly) with the stated aim that they want “to improve study and reconstruct society with a spirit of mutual aid.” Contributors include Wu Kang, Huang Shaogu, Zhi Ziqing, Su Jiarong, Chen Yuqin, Tan Mingjian, Chen Gongbo, Wei Jian’gong, He Siyuan, Gao Junyu, Fei Juetian, Zhu JianzhiHuang Lingshuang, Huang Tianjun, and Miu Jinyuan. [Chow (1963), 68.]

January 5: Vol. 2, No. 1 of Taipingyang is published, establishing itself as a bimonthly hereafter. Yang Duanliu becomes editor. [Chow (1963), 37.]

January 11: Ren 人 (“Man” issue 1, “La Homo” issue 2 onwards), a weekly organ of the anarchist Ren she is established in Guangdong. Hansheng, Jing Meijiu, Zhang Minquan, and Zhao Taimou are all involved. The aim of the paper is to oppose the state, class oppression, and capitalism. It advocated thegeneral strike and was distrustful of vanguard groups, even well-intentioned ones. Zhang Lisheng and Li Lisan are financial contributors. [Chow (1963), 86.]

January 15: Xin xuesheng 新学生 (New Student), a student-interest paper is founded in Guangdong. It advocates freedom, equality, and mutual aid. It also aims to spread western philosophy. Chen Guoyun, Feng Jupo, Hu Hanmin, and Chen Shaonan are contributors. [Chow (1963), 86.]

January 20: The Juewu she 觉悟社 (Awakening Society) begins publishing Juewu 觉悟 (Awakening) out of Tianjin. The articles of the paper are written collectively. The collective includes Zhou Enlai, Deng Yingchao, Ma Jun, Guo Longzhen. It advocated work-study and was influenced by guild socialismand anarchism. [Chow (1963), 74.]

January 26: Vol. 2, No. 8 of Min xing is published. [Chow (1963), 66.]

January 29: Tianjin, the government fires on over 1000 students demonstrating against the import of Japanese goods. (Ip, 53-54)

Early in the year: The Gongdu huzhu tuan 工读互 助团 (Work-Study Mutual Aid Group) is founded with the help of Wang Guangqi. [Levine (1993), 246.]

Chen Jiongming provides financial support for Wu Zhihui and a group of 100 students from Guangdong and Guangxi to travel and study at the Institut Franco-Chinois de Lyon in France. Wu Zhihui becomes president of the institution, which Cai Yuanpei and Li Shizeng were also instrumental in organizing. There is also a corresponding sister school near Beijing, the Sino-French University. [Boorman (1967), 418.]

Chen Jiongming also moves his troops from Fujian to Guangdong. Min xing ceases publication. [Chow (1963), 66.]

Li Dazhao‘s first attempt to organize a Communist group in Beijing includes six anarchists among the eight members.

Zhang Weici, Ma Yinchu, Gu Mengyu, Sun Fuyuan, Dai Zhitao, Peng Yihu, Liu Binglin begin contributing to Xin qingnian. [Chow (1963), 29.]

Voitinsky arrives in China, meeting with Li Dazhao in Beijing and Chen Duxiu in Shanghai. [Chow (1960), 375.]

February: Xinqun ceases publication. [Chow (1963), 57.]

February 8: The Beijing Daxue xuesheng zhoukan takes an anarchist positioning starting in issue No. 6. {This may be because of the influence ofHuang Lingshuang. -DC} [Chow (1963), 68.]

No. 5 of Ren is published. [Chow (1963), 86.]

February 16: Beijing Police halt the distribution of Gongdu magazine. [Chow (1963). 49.]

February 20: No. 2 of Fendou xunkan is published. Contributors all sign their articles with pseudonyms, generally just using Western initials. [Chow (1963), 68.]

March 10: Fendou xunkan publishes a special issue, No. 3, on free love. [Chow (1963), 68.]

March 15: Zhe ren 浙人 (The Zhejiang People), another heir to Zhejiang xin chao, is established in Hangzhou. [Chow (1963), 83.]

March: Hujucz, Bakin and others reform the Shanghai Esperanto Association, and organize conferences. [David Poulson, Eroshenko in China: Part One,<http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/esperanto/58322>, accessed May 17th, 2008.]

March 30: Fendou xunkan publishes a special issue, No. 5, on “destruction”. [Chow (1963), 68.]

April 2: The former editor of Gongdu, Zhao Shiyan, is arrested for his anti-government, pro-student power views. [Chow (1963). 49.]

April 3: Xin ren 新人 (New Man, or New Individual) Issue No. 1, is published today by the Xin ren she 新人社 (Society for the New Man). The society is based in Shanghai, but has about 50 members in various major cities, most of whom are interested in anarchism. Besides the magazine, they also publish various essays and translations of Tolstoy. Wang Wuwei is the editor. Sun Hanbing, Wang Jing, Wu Fangji, Cai Xiaozhou, Gu Jianchen, Zhang Jinglu, Yu Henian (see also Nankai rikan), Deng Yancun, Chen Fang, Wen Jincheng and Li Ziyin are all contributors. Zhao Nangong, a member of the group, published the magazine. [Chow (1963), 78.]

April 13: Some anarchist and socialist students at National Shansi University in Taiyuan found the Xin gonghe xuehui. [Chow (1963), 91.]

April 15: Jueshe xinkan 覺社新刊 (New Journal of Awakening Society), a weekly, is founded in Beijing. It advocates Dewey‘s philosophy, work-study (工学), and mutual aid. Certain issues feature speeches by Jiang Menlin. [Chow (1963), 70.]

April: Minfeng zhoukan ceases publication. [Chow (1963), 66.]

April 30: Xueyi becomes a monthly. [Chow (1963), 34.]

Fendou xunkan simultaneously publishes two special issues, No. 8 and 9, on Bolshevism’s flaws. The magazine is suppressed after this point. [Chow (1963), 68.]

Spring: Jiating yanjiu 家庭研究 (Family Studies), is established. The focus of the journal is on the defects of the traditional family system. Instead, the journal advocates free love and gender equality. [Chow (1963), 79.]

May 1: A new woman’s magazine is established in Suzhou. Called Funv pinglun 妇女评论 (Women’s Review), it also discusses the labor and work-studymovements in addition to explicitly feminist topics. Chen Yuqin, Qu Qiubai, Wang Pingling, Guo Shaoyu, Ye Shengtao, Xu Dishan, Zhang Xiaochen, Zhou Taixuan, and Li Hanjun are involved. [Chow (1963), 82.]

May: Xin qingnian becomes a communist magazine with a wave of new contributors including Li Da, Zhou Fohai, Li Ji, Li Hanjun, Cheng Shewo, Yang Mingzhai, Mao Dun, Shen Dingyi, Kang Baiqing, Ou Shengbai, Chen Gongbo, Wang Zhingzhi, Shi Cuntong, Peng Shuzhi, Cai Hesen, Chen Chaonian, Ye Ching, Jiang Guangzi, Qu Qiubai, Zhang Guotao, and Liu Renjing. [Chow (1963), 29.]

Beijing police halt the publication of No. 19 of Xin shehui [Chow (1963). 48.]

Xin jiaoyu, Vol. 2, No. 5, is a special issue on student agitation. [Chow (1963), 54.]

Students at Qinghua University found the Weizhen xuehui 唯真学会 (Truth Society) and an organ, Weizhen 唯真 (Truth). [Chow (1963), 71.]

May 23: No. 17 of Beijing Daxue xuesheng zhoukan appears. The journal is temporarily suspended. [Chow (1963), 68.]

June 1: No. 4 of Jueshe xinkan is published. The journal ends its publications. [Chow (1963), 70.]

Zizhi 自治 (Autonomy) is founded in Zhangzhou, Fujian to discuss liberty, equality, and New Culture topics. Lai Rumei and Xie Bingxin are contributors. [Chow (1963), 86.]

Xin Chao is suspended for 16 months. [Chow (1960), 375.]

June 6: Xingqi pinglun ceases publication after No. 53. [Chow (1963), 55.]

Summer: Juewu ceases publication.[Chow (1963), 74.]

August 5: A more moderate, more idealistic version of Xin shehui is founded by its former members. They call it Rendao yuekan 人道月刊 (“L’Humanité”), probably taking a cue from a French communist magazine. Zheng Zhenduo, Qu Shiying, Qu QiubaiZhou ZuorenLi Dazhao, Xu Dishan, Guo Shaoyu Geng Kuang, Chen Qitian, Huang Luyin, and Shi Cuntong are contributors. [Chow (1963), 72.]

August 15: The CCP establishes Laodong jie 劳动界 (Labor Circles), aimed at instructing the working class towards socialist understandings of their plight. Sometimes a syndicalist analysis is presented. Chen Duxiu, Li Hanjun, Chen Wangdao, Shen Dingyi, Wu Fang, Yuan Shidu, Zhang Chi, Li Chenying, Dai Zhitao, Jian Xingcun, Zhang Guotao, Huang Ai, Shao Lizi, and Chen Weiren are involved. [Chow (1963), 79.]

August: Vol. 2, No. 8 of Xin Zhongguo is published. [Chow (1963), 45.]

Vol. 2, No. 6 of Jianshe published in Shanghai. It ceases publication later in the year, shortly following Vol. 3, No. 1 of the magazine. [Chow (1963), 56.]

Daoyan banyuekan ceases publication. [Chow (1963), 53.]

August 18: No. 4 of Xin ren, a special issue on the New Culture Movement, is published. [Chow (1963), 78.]

August 28: No. 5 of Xin ren, a special issue on the New Culture Movement, is published. [Chow (1963), 78.]

September 15: Jiefang yu gaizao becomes simply Gaizao 改造 (Transformation, or “La Reconstruo”) with the publication of Vol. 3, No. 1 of the magazine.Liang Qichao becomes sole editor of the magazine. [Chow (1963). 47.

September: The Guangdong branch of the CCP is founded by a group of anarchists and communists. [Chow (1963), 87.]

September 25: Wuqi yuekan 五七月刊 (May Seventh Monthly) is established. Tang Kuang is editor. Hu Junshan, Gu Junxiao, Ziming, Du Kefei, and Ruilin are contributors. “While some writers advocated a kind of Marxist and anarchist revolution in China, the major writers preferred free elections, parliamentary government, and the protection of people’s freedom.” [Chow (1963). 82.]

October 3: The Guangdong branch of the CCP begins publishing Laodongzhe 劳动者 (The Worker), a weekly. Huang Lingshuang (writing as Jiansheng), Wu Fang, Liebei, Jianyun, and Laoren all contribute to the project. “Most writers were anarchists.” [Chow (1963), 87.]

October 12: Bertrand Russell arrives in China with Dora Black. He will stay for 12 months. [Chow (1960), 376.]

October: Students at Beida found Piping 批评 (Critic), a semimonthly with a heavy anarchist bent. The journal is founded in the spirit of true criticism, not ready-made opinions. (Xu) Liuzhi, Zheng Zhenduo, Zhou Changxian, Miu Jinyuan, Luo Dunwei, Chen Guyuan, Shen Dingyi, C.C., Yi Junzuo, Wang Tongzhao, Huang Shaogu, Guo Shaoyu, Huang Luyin, Zhou Jianren, Li Dazhao, and Zhou Zuoren are contributors. [Chow (1963). 72.]

October 29: Chen Jiongming and Chiang Kai-shek retake Guangdong. [Chow (1960), 376.]

November 1: Funv pinglun puts out Vol. 2, No. 3. [Chow (1963). 82.]

November 6: No. 52 of Lv Ou zhoukan is published. [Chow (1963), 67.]

November 7: The CCP begins publishing Laodong yin 劳动音 (Voice of Labor), a propaganda tool to bring the labor movement towards the communists.Huang Lingshuang may be a contributor, though he is writing under a pseudonym. [Chow (1963). 72.]

The CCP also establishes a journal of communist theory, Gongchang dang 工厂当 (“The Communist”). It “attacked anarchism but approved its final goal”. Deng Zhongxia, Li Zhenying, Shi Cuntong, and Chen Duxiu are most likely involved. [Chow (1963), 81.]

November 20: Anarchists Pang Renquan and Huang Ai found the Hunan laogong hui in Changsha, Hunan. “The society was established on Nov. 20, 1920, by Pang Renquan and Huang Ai (1897-1922), both graduated from Hunan First-Class Industrial School, and by students of that school and other technological schools. It later recruited a number of workers and technicians from factories and its membership reached over 7000.” They go on to lead several workers’ strikes in Changsha. [Chow (1963), 98.]

December 5: No. 5 of Laodong yin sees publication. [Chow (1963). 72.]

End of the year: Anarchists and other heterodox communists leave the Chinese Communist Party organized by Li Dazhao.

Mao Zedong turns towards Marxism, away from anarchism. [Roxann Prazniak, “Mao and the Woman Question in an Age of Green Politics: Some Critical Reflections,” in Critical Perspectives on Mao Zedong’s Thought, edited by Arif Dirlik, et al. New Jersey: Humanities Press (1997), 33.]

December 15: The Pinglun zhi pinglun 评论之评论 (“The Review of Reviews”) is founded by students at Beida‘s Law School, though it may have begun publishing as early as June of this year.. The magazine sets out to critically examine various intellectual trends including anarchism and Marxism. Orientation is close to guild socialism. Contributors include Chen Guyuan and Fei Juetian (eds.), Guo Mengliang, Chen Qixiu, Xu Liuji, Wu Tianfang, Li Dazhao, Gao Yihan, Xiaohang, Wang Shijie, Huang Shaogu, Yu Jiaju, Chen Shifu, Chu Junong, Zhou Changxian, Hu Shi, and Zheng Zhenduo. [Chow (1963), 72.]

Yun Daiying, Wei Yixin, Li Yu’nan, Liao Huanxing, Huang Fusheng, and Li Shuqu, all later communists, collaborate on a single-issue publication calledHuzhu 互助 (Mutual Aid), published in Wuzhang. Their society, the Huzhu she stands for the “progress of youth by mutual {aid} and for ‘democracy’ but with anarchist and socialist leanings”. [Chow (1963), 84.]

Ba Jin becomes an anarchist.

Bertrand Russell teaches at Beida. ||

46 strikes take place this year, 19 are reported. [Chow (1960), 388.]


January: Issue No. 7 of Piping is published. [Chow (1963). 72.]

Wang Jingwei is elected president of Guangdong sheng jiaoyu hui. [Chow (1963), 100.]

January 1: Laogong 劳工 (Workers), a monthly, is established as an organ of Hunan laogong hui. The main writers and editors, Pang Renquan andHuang Ai, are anarchists; other writers have guild socialist, syndicalist, and broadly anarchist leanings. [Chow (1963), 98.]

January 5: Nos. 7 and 8 of Xin ren are published in a combined issue. [Chow (1963), 78.]

January 16: Laodong jie No. 23 is published. [Chow (1963), 79.]

January 20: Wuqi yuekan publishes issue No. 3. [Chow (1963), 82.]

February 1: Xin Zhejiang 新浙江 (New Zhejiang) is founded in Shanghai. Zhang Jinglu (ed.), Hu Huaichen, and Tai Xu are contributors. “The magazine generally followed the line of the new culture movement, introduced Bertrand Russell, and sympathized with such ideas as the general strike.” Followed the motto: “from each according to his ability, from each according to his knowledge.” It is a regional-interest magazine. [Chow (1963), 92.]

February 13: Laodong yu funv 劳动与妇女 (Labor and Women) is established by communists Chen Duxiu, Shen Dingyi, Chen Gongbo, Ye Chucang, Huang Bihun, and Tan Pingshan. Few of the writers are women. [Chow (1963), 99.]

February: Publication of New Youth moves to Guangdong from Shanghai. Liberals stop participating in the project. [Chow (1960), 375.]

March: Xin Sichuan 新四川 (New Sichuan) monthly is founded in Shanghai. Contributors include Zhou Chenxun (ed.), Ma Shaokui, and Ma Jiandong. The writings of Zhang Lan are reprinted. The authors saw many forms of religion as being forms of socialism. “Some writers were inspired by anarchist ideals, proposing to abandon political institutions and the monetary system.” It is a regional-interest magazine. [Chow (1963), 92.]

April 15: Wuqi yuekan publishes issue No. 5. [Chow (1963), 82.]

April 24: Laodong yu funv ceases publication. [Chow (1963), 99.]

April 30: Wuhu xuesheng hui xunkan 芜湖学生会旬刊 (Ten-day publication of the Wuhu Student Union) is established. The say “We will not only refuse to obey unconsciously all of the old customs, thoughts, and the familial, social, and state organizations, but also will not blindly believe in the contemporary so-called new-thought tide, such as ‘democracy’, ‘Bolshevism‘, ‘anarchism‘, and what is told to us by our teachers and friends.” [Chow (1963), 95.]

May 1: Chen Duxiu publishes an article on anarchism, “Zhongguoshi de wuzhengfu zhuyi” 中国式 的无政府主义 in Xin qingnian Vol. 9, No. 1.

Xin funv publishes Vol. 5, No. 1 of the issue, which turns out to be the last; the printers who made the paper burnt down shortly afterwards. [Chow (1963). 76.]

Jinan laodong zhoukan 济南劳动周刊 (Jinan Labor Weekly), a communist labor magazine, is founded by Wang Jinmei. [Chow (1963), 91.]

Young communists (including Yuan Yubing, Fang Zhimin, Huang Dao, Hong Hongyi, Zou Xiufeng, Wang Qun, and Wang Wei) form Xin Jiangxi 新江西 (New Jiangxi). [Chow (1963), 95.]

May 15: Shuangzhou pinglun 双周评论 (Fortnightly Review) founded in Wuxi, Jiangsu province. Zhenxin and Peng Pai are contributors. “Advocated equality of men and women, social revolution, but considered Marx‘s ideas and the soviet system to be collectivistic instead of communistic.” [Chow (1963), 95.]

May 20: No. 2 of Wuhu xuesheng hui xunkan is published. [Chow (1963), 95.]

Late May: Gongren zhoukan 工人周刊 (Workers’ Weekly), an organ of the CCP, is founded in Beijing. Chen Duxiu, Huang Shaogu, Xu Teli, Deng Zhongxia, Gao Junyu, Wang Jinmei, and Luo Zhanglong are involved with its publication. [Chow (1963), 89.]

May 30: No. 3 of Wuhu xuesheng hui xunkan is published. [Chow (1963), 95.]

June 3: Shuangzhou pinglun prints a special issue on labor issues. [Chow (1963), 95.]

June: Xin shenghuo ceases publication. [Chow (1963), 46.]

Shuguang also ceases publication with Vol. 2, No. 3. [Chow (1963). 48.]

Wuqi yuekan publishes issue No. 6. [Chow (1963), 82.]

June 21: Shuangzhou pinglun publishes a special issue (No. 3) on labor issues. [Chow (1963), 95.]

July 3-19: Red Trade Union International convention is held in Moscow. Some Chinese people and also some anarchists attend.

July 7: Issue No. 7 of Gongchang dang comes out. [Chow (1963), 81.]

July: Vasily Eroshenko (1890-1952), blind, Russian anarchist and Esperanto teacher, moves to Harbin by way of Vladivostok after being deported from Japan for political reasons. [<http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/EroshenkoVasily.htm>, accessed May 17th, 2008.]

socialist-leaning regional paper, Xin Shandong 新山东 (New Shandong), is established by the Student Union of Jinan, Shandong. Its goal is to reform Shandong along into a utopian (some writers suggest anarchist) society. Most writers take a progressive stance toward the establishment of Shandong as ananarchist utopia. Contributors include Li Huaizhu, Wang Xiangwu, and Teng Yaozong. [Chow (1963), 91.]

The Guangdong sheng jiaoyu hui begins publication of a new journal, Guangdong sheng jiaoyu hui zazhi 广东省教育会杂志 (The Journal of the Guangdong Educational Association). Lin Yun’gai is the editor. Contributors include a few anarchists and sympathizers: Wang Jingwei, Jin Zengcheng, Tan Mingjian, Ou Shengbai, and Wu Zhihui. The thoughts of John DeweyChen Duxiu, and Sun Yat-sen are also discussed. [Chow (1963), 100.]

August: Mao Zedong and He Shuheng establish Hunan zixiu daxue 湖南自修大学 as “an underground school to train and recruit communist members…” [Chow (1963), 120.]

Chinese Labor Union Secretariat is formed by the Communist Party. [Chow (1960), 375.]

August 20: Laodong zhoukan 劳动周 刊 (Labor weekly), an organ of the CCP, is founded in Shanghai. Editors include Zhang Teli (Zhang Guotao), Li Qihan, and Li Zhenying. Contributors include Shen Dingyi. [Chow (1963), 93.]

September 1: Xin Haifeng 新海丰 (“The New Hai Fong”) is established in Haifeng, Guangdong. “Aim: to promote the new culture and new thought tide and to create a new life of liberty and equality in Haifeng. It generally advocated pragmatism and anarchist communism….” Contributors include Zheng Zhiyun (ed.), Li Guozhen, Peng Pai, Zhong Yimou, and Ma Xing. [Chow (1963), 100.]

September: a new paper, Awakening the People, no. 1, is published, which includes the article “Nationalism and the Road to Happiness for the Chinese” byBa Jin. A translated version of the article can be found here: <http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/bajin/roadtohappiness.html>. It is an impassioned pacifistic attack on the wave of nationalist sentiments affecting Chinese people at the time. Ba Jin invokes Tolstoy and makes an argument that nationalism feeds imperialism, class oppression, and war.

September 20: The Lyons IncidentLi Lisan, future communist leader, is involved. See [Boorman (1967), 320.] for a little background.

October 10: Gong jin 共进 (Common Progress) is founded in Beijing. It advocates democracy, popular movements, and a break from traditional culture and thought. The works of anarchists like Wu Zhihui and Wang Jingwei are republished in its pages, as well as speeches by Chen Duxiu and Hu Shi. Qiang Jian, Tian Han, Gao Yuhan, Yu Youren, Yang Zhongjian, Li Zhongkui (Li Siguang), Qu Wu, and Yun Daiying are contributors. [Chow (1963), 89.]

October: Eroshenko got a job teaching Esperanto at the Institute of Languages in Shanghai. Though the association suffers from severe financial problems, Eroshenko totally revives the organization by playing benefit concerts. Soon the association is even able to afford to establish an Esperanto bookstore and library in Shanghai. [<http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/EroshenkoVasily.htm>, accessed May 17th, 2008.]

Fall (pre-October 20): Laogong ceases publication. [Chow (1963), 98.]

October 20: Laodong zhoukan 劳动周刊 (Workers’ Weekly) founded in Changsha. It was the successor to Laogong as the organ of the Hunan laogong hui. Strong anarchist influence coming from the editors, Pang Renquan and Huang Ai. The paper also criticized Marxism. Song Huanda, Mengwei, and Chen Xiaocen are contributors. [Chow (1963), 98.]

November: British representative in China, B. Alston, writes a letter to Marquess of Curzon of Kedleston about Chinese anarchists. It is called “Bolshevism and Chinese Communism and Anarchism in the Far East.” PRO: Foreign Office [FO] 371/6602 F4310/34/10.

November-December: Mao Zedong tries to convince anarchists in the labor movement to join the communist cause. [Chow (1963), 98.]

December 1: Korean revolutionaries and sympathizers in Guangdong establish Guangming 光明 (Light). Wang JingweiChen Gongbo, Xinfu, Yinzhen, Jianyun, Li Daneng, and Bao Huiseng are contributors. Most writers have socialist and anarchist leanings. [Chow (1963), 100.]

December 10: Xin gonghe 新共和 (“The New Republic”) is founded at National Shansi University in Taiyuan. Contributors include Xie Huanwen (ed.), Ma Tianqi, and Deng Zhumin. “Introduced several kinds of idealistic socialism. Some writers favored anarchism instead of communism.”[Chow (1963), 91.]

December 17: No. 18 of Laodong zhoukan is published. [Chow (1963), 93.]

December 21: Funv shen 妇女声 (“The Women’s Voice”) is founded in Shanghai. Chen Duxiu, Shen Zemin, Shao Lizi, Shen Yanbing, Zhou Bodi, and Li Da are contributors. The magazine encourages women intellectuals to further emancipate themselves by joining in solidarity with the labor movement. The magazine eventually became explicitly communist. [Chow (1963), 93.]

Followers of Shifu, like Liang Bingxuan, organize the Gongren huzuo she 工人合作社 (Workers Mutual Aid Society), an anarchist umbrella organization for over 40 smaller labor unions

December 15: Final issue of Pinglun zhi pinglun, wherein a new “revolutionary literature” is suggested by some authors. [Chow (1963), 72.]

Zizhi congkan 自治丛刊 (Journal of Self-government) is founded in Jingzhou, Hubei. [Chow (1963), 97.]

Issue No. 2 of Xin Haifeng appears with an article, “To the Worker,” by Kropotkin. [Chow (1963), 100.]

49 strikes take place this year, 22 are reported. [Chow (1960), 388.] ||


January 12: The Communist Party orchestrates a strike among seamen in Hong Kong. [Chow (1960), 377.]

January 15: Xianqu 先驱 (The Pioneers), a new magazine in its first issue, publishes a piece (“Gongchan zhuyi yu wuzhengfu zhuyi” 共产主义与无政府 主义 Communism and Anarchism), where Deng Zhongxia says, “The ultimate goals of Communism and anarchism are not so different. The merits of anarchism are all included in Communism. But anarchism does not have all the merits of Communism. Communism contains objective, operational strategy and method.” [Kwan (1997), 28] {Although Deng Zhongxia did not even have a clear analysis of the differences of communism and anarchism at this point, he is clearly taking a side in the debate taking place. -DC} See also [Chow (1963), 101.]

Communists like Chen Duxiu, Dai Zhidao, Cai Hesen, Li Da, Shi Cuntong, Deng Zhongxia, and Yun Daiying begin using a new magazine, Xianqu, to attack their ideological opponents, anarchistsguild socialists, and Christians. -DC

Anarchists in Paris, who are there either as part of the work-study movement or just as workers, establish a new monthly journal, Gong yu 工馀 (After-Work). Contributors include Liebei, Li Zhuo, T.W., T.Y., and Feng Keyi. “It opposed the communists and engaged in polemics with the communist monthly Shaonian, taking the view that workers and peasants in the Soviet Union had lost their freedom and that the Chinese communists had misled the labor movement in China. Many of the articles were reprinted in China by other anarchist magazines.” [Chow (1963), 113.]

January 17: Pang Renquan and Huang Ai are executed in Changsha. [Chow (1963), 98.] {Jonathon Spence reports differently. See entry in 1923. -DC}

February 1: Anarchists fleeing repression in Hunan establish a new journal, Xue ji 血祭 (Sacrifice with Blood), in Hanzhou. [Chow (1963), 98.]

February: Eroshenko moves from Shanghai to Beijing, where, at the behest of Cai Yuanpei, he begins to teach Esperanto at Beida and Women’s Normal University. He returns to Russia the next year. Karl Yoneda is one of his students for two months in Beijing, before traveling back to Japan. [<http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/EroshenkoVasily.htm>, accessed May 17th, 2008.] and [David Poulson, Eroshenko<http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/esperanto/55147>, accessed May 17th, 2008.]

Mid-February: The publication of Laogong zhoukan moves to Shanghai with issue No. 14. [Chow (1963), 98.]

February 26: Qingnian zhoukan 青年周刊 (Youth Weekly) is founded by some young CCP members in Guangdong. The magazine promotes Marxism and attacks anarchism. [Chow (1963), 111.]

March 4: Issue No. 16 of Laogong zhoukan is published. [Chow (1963), 98.]

March: Xin Chao ceases publication with Vol. 3, No. 2 of the monthly. [Chow (1963), 43.]

Hua Lin and others (including Chen Duxiu‘s two sons, Chen Yannian and Chen Qiaonian) found Gongyu she 工馀社 (Surplus Society) (in Paris? -DC). [Levine (1993), 247.]

May 1: Special Mayday issue of Gongxue is published. [Chow (1963). 49.]

Anarchists fleeing repression in Hunan establish a new journal, Xue zhong 血钟 (Blood Bell), in Shanghai. There is only one issue published. [Chow (1963), 98.]

“First Congress of the All-China Labor Federation held in Canton, attended by delegates from more than 100 unions.” [Chow (1960), 377.]

May 15: No. 2 of Xin gonghe is published. [Chow (1963), 91.]

May: Laodong zhoukan ceases publication. [Chow (1963), 93.]

June 1: Li Qihan, editor of Laodong Zhoukan, is arrested in Shanghai. He goes to prison for three months. [Chow (1963), 93.]

June 16: Chen Jiongming repeals allegiance to Sun Yat-sen. [Chow (1960), 377.]

June 20: Issue No. 10 of Funv shen is published. [Chow (1963), 94.]

July 1: The Min zhong 民钟 (“The People’s Bell”) monthly is established in Guangdong by the Min zhong zazhi she 民钟杂志社. Contributors to the magazine include all of the notable anarchists of the time: Jianmin, Taiyi, Huang LingshuangOu Shengbai, Jianyun, Liang Bingxian, Zhu Jianzhi,Li Shizeng, Jing Meijiu, Ba Jin, Li Zhenying, Yibo, Hua LinWu Zhihui, Wending, and Junyi. “Aim: to establish an “anarchist communist” society.” “It was the most long-lived and most influential anarchist magazine in China. It opposed communism and the Soviet Union.” [Chow (1963), 112.]

Xin Qingnian ceases publication. [Chow (1960), 377.]

July: CCP allies itself to GMD. [Chow (1960), 377.]

Summer: Chen Yannian and Chen Qiaonian join the ECCO. [Levine (1993), 247.]

!!, an anarchist journal founded by syndicalist associates of Pang Renquan and Huang Ai, is established in Tianjin. [Chow (1963), 98.]

August 1: Vol. 1, No. 2 of Min zhong is published.

Shaonian 少年 (Youth, or “La Jeunesse”) is founded as an organ of the ECCO. It propagates communism and attacks anarchism. Contributors includeZhou Enlai, Ren Zhuoxuan, and Wu Hao. [Chow (1963), 113.]

September 1: No. 5 of Xue ji is printed. [Chow (1963), 98.]

Vol. 1, No. 3 of Min zhong is published. It becomes irregularly published afterwards. [Chow (1963), 112.]

September 15: Vol. 4, No. 10 of Gaizao is published. The project ends. [Chow (1963). 47.]

September: GMD accepts communist members. [Chow (1960), 377.]

Chen Duxiu establishes new magazine, The Guide Weekly. [Chow (1960), 377.]

October 10: Xuehai 学海 (Sea of Learning) is published in Beijing as a supplementary publication to the mainstream journal, Guofeng ribao 国风日报 (National Style Daily). Contributors include Jing Meijiu, Xuan Tian (eds.), Li Zhenying, Liu Yenling, Hua Lin, Liebei, Huang LingshuangOu Shengbai, Yimin, Zhao Jinshen, Hanguang, Liu Mengwei, Xu Jie, Yang Renbian, Hang Xinzhai, and Jing Yulin. The works of ShifuŌsugi SakaeNietzsche,KropotkinTolstoyBertrand RussellBakuninOscar Wilde, and Emma Goldman were included in translation. [Chow (1963), 125.]

December 24: No. 3 of Xin Gonghe is published. [Chow (1963), 91.]

“ During the two years 1922 and 1923, more than seventy anarchist publications appeared inside and outside China. To be sure, like the societies that published them, these publications were short-lived; many did not last beyond one issue; all that remains of them today are announcements of publication in other anarchist journals. These publications also had limited circulation and quite possibly did not reach beyond the locality in which they were published.” [Dirlik (1991), 154.]

Anarchists are involved with organizing strikes for higher wages, injury compensation, profit-sharing, and better working facilities.

John Dewey leaves China.

91 strikes take place this year, 30 are reported. [Chow (1960), 388.]


January 16: Military forces of the GMD recapture Guangdong from Chen Jiongming. [Chow (1960), 377.]

February: Debates about science and metaphysics begin which will occupy Wu Zhihui for rest of year. [Chow (1960), 377.]

March 15: Huzhu yuekan 互助月 刊 (Mutual Aid Monthly) is founded in Beijing. Contributors include Xu Jie, Xuezhong, and Andun. “An anarchistpublication which abhorred all kinds of power and authority, it severely criticized Sun Yat-sen and Chen Duxiu and opposed the alliance of the {GMD} and the {CCP}. The monthly listed 21 anarchist organizations existing in China at the time, and according to its incomplete estimate there had been more than 70 anarchist books and magazines, excluding translations, published in the country before 1923.” [Chow (1963), 115.]

April 10: Xin shidai 新时代 (The New Age) is established in Changsha as an organ of the Hunan zixiu daxue 湖南自修大学 (Self-Culture College of Hunan). Contributors include Mao Zedong, Li Da, Li Weihan, Zou Wenzhen, Liu Qunren, Chen Bingkun, Chen Yukui, and Luo Xuezan. Sympathetic rticles by Cai Yuanpei and Li Shizeng are printed. [Chow (1963), 120.]

May 1: Huzhu yuekan publishes issue No. 3 as a special edition focused on Labor. [Chow (1963), 115.]

June 30: Xuehai 学海 (Sea of Learning) publishes its last journal. [Chow (1963), 125.]

June 11: Xueyi changes the name of its publishing group from Bingchen xueshe to Zhonghua xueyi she. [Chow (1963), 34.]

July 15: No. 4 of Xin shidai is published. [Chow (1963), 120.]

New Youth is revived as a Communist Party organ. [Chow (1960), 377.]

Summer: Guoxue congkan 国学丛刊 (Journal of National Learning, or “Journal of Chinese Literature”), an academic journal of national cultural studies is founded. Former anarchists Liu Shipei and Zhang Binglin are contributors. [Chow (1963), 118.]

September 15: Zhang Binglin writes the opening article for a new nationalist journal, Hua guo 華国 (National Glorification).

October: The Students’ Association in Peking assumes editorship of Taipingyang, relieving Yang Duanliu of his duties. [Chow (1963), 37.]

October 15: Fendou 奋斗 (Struggle, or “La Revue de la Lutte Gigantesque”), a reformist-socialist, yet anti-communist, magazine is established in Paris. [Chow (1963), 123.]

December 30: Gongren zhoukan No. 79 is published. [Chow (1963), 89.]

Ba Jin moves to Shanghai from Chengdu.

Wu Zhihui returns to China from Lyons, publishes “A New Cosmology and Philosophy of Life Based Upon a New Belief.” [Boorman (1967), 418.]

ECCO holds tense debates with anarchists. The ECCO proved better rhetorically equipped. But already by this time, many Chinese activists were frustrated with the shortcomings of the anarchist movement. This is because of the lack of organization and the Lyons Incident. Also, because anarchism had served to radicalize many leaders already, it was a perfect target to take down as a demonstration of political robustness.

Around the end of the year the Gongyu‘s writers and editors consolidate with another paper. Their journal has been completely marginalized by this point.

Pang Renchuan and Huang Ai, anarchists, executed in Changsha. “…the government of Hunan province had executed two anarchist leaders of the workingmen’s association after a strike in the Changsha cotton mill had led to a window breaking and machine wrecking…” [Spence 1981, 181]. {Chow Tse-tsung reports their execution date as January 17, 1922. -DC}

Minzhong She 民(众?)社 (People’s Tocsin Society), anarchist publishing group, is founded. They initially work out of Shanghai, but later relocate to Guangdong.

Huzhu yuekan 互助月看 (Mutual Assistance Monthly) is published in Beijing.


March 10: Vol. 1, No. 7 of Min zhong is published. The magazine begins to include more and more anti-Soviet, anti-communist writing in its pages. [Chow (1963), 112.]

April: The Korean Anarchist Federation in China is formed among Koreans living in the northeast of China. [http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/01ref.htm#19/1929, accessed May 17th, 2008.]

May: Shaonian Zhongguo, with publication of Vol. 4, No. 12 of the magazine, ceases publication. [Chow (1963), 45.]

June 1: Min zhong publishes a special issue on Kropotkin and his ideas, Vol. 1, No. 8. [Chow (1963), 112.]

December 5: Yu Dafu joins the editorial board of Taipingyang for Vol. 4, No. 9 of the magazine. Xiandai pinglun 现代评论 (Modern Critic) is established from this group. [Chow (1963), 37.]

Ding Ling is living with Hu Yepin in Beijing, where they have a small library of anarchist and other radical titles.

First National Congress of the GMDLi Shizeng and Wu Zhihui accepts an elected position in the Central Supervisory Committee, where Wu supports cooperation with the communists. Wu also tries to orchestrate some cooperation between Sun Yat-sen and Chen Jiongming. [Boorman (1967), 418; 320.]


January 1: Min zhong prints a benefit issue (Vol. 1, No. 10) for anarchists imprisoned in Russia. [Chow (1963), 112.]

January: Freedom volume 39, issue 423: page 4 publishes “The Anarchist Movement in China: From a Letter of a Chinese Comrade” by Baopo. This piece was apparently translated from Russian. [Lang (1967), 356]

March 12: Sun Yat-sen dies. Wu Zhihui helps officiate the signing of Sun’s political testament. [Boorman (1967), 418.]

May: May Thirtieth Incident (after which anarchism is on the wane, communism waxes)

June 5: Taipingyang ceases publication with Vol. 4, No. 10 of the journal. [Chow (1963), 37.]

October: Xin jiaoyu ceases publication with Vol. 11, No. 3 of the magazine. [Chow (1963), 54.]

After publishing issue No. 23 of their paper, Gong yu, the Gongyu she dissolves, ceasing publication in France. Members of the group, however, consolidate with Ziyou ren in Shanghai. [Chow (1963), 113.]

November: Western Hills Conference.

December 20: Gongren zhoukan No. 133 is published. [Chow (1963), 89.]

The Workers Mutual Aid Society is disbanded.

Anarchist Chen Qiulin and Liao Zhongkai are assassinated. [Chow (1963), 66.]


April 15: Vol. 5, No. 3 and 4 of Fa zheng xuebao are published in Beijing. [Chow (1963), 40.]

March 8: 8 March Incident at Taku Harbor. [Boorman (1967), 321.]

March 18: 40+ people killed in a demonstration in Beijing. Li Dazhao and Li Shizeng are ordered to be arrested. Li Shizeng flees to Guangdong. [Boorman (1967), 321.]

Mid-year: Cai Yuanpei and Zhang Renjie (@) join Li Shizeng and Wu Zhihui as members of the GMD Central Supervisory Committee. [Boorman (1967), 320.]

Ba Jin writes a pamphlet on the Haymarket Affair for the San Francisco-based Pingshe 平社 (Equality Society). He uses the name Li Feigan 李芾甘. The title is Zhijiage de canju 支加哥 的惨剧 (The Tragedy of Chicago).

Ba Jin also writes “The History of the Anarchist Movement in China” for the second issue of a paper out of Paris, Libera Laboristo.

Minzhong She 民(众?)社 (People’s Tocsin Society) ceases publication.


March 24: Emma Goldman gives a talk about anarchism in China in Toronto. [<http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/AnarchistTimeline3.htm>, accessed May 17th, 2008.]

March 25: Vol. 2, No. 3 of Min zhong is printed as a special issue dedicated to Shifu. The magazine moves its operations to Shanghai starting with this issue. [Chow (1963), 112.]

April: Li ShizengWu ZhihuiCai Yuanpei, and Zhang Renjie, the “four elder statesmen” of the GMD, confer in Shanghai with the GMD Central Supervisory Committee where communists are formally expelled. [Boorman (1967), 418.]

Guomindang nullifies the united front with the communists. [Chan and Dirlik (1991), 6]

Anarchists ally themselves with the Guomindang. They prove to be the Guomindang‘s best ideological weapons against the communists.

Under the name Feigan 芾甘, and along with co-authors Wu 吳 and Huilin 惠林, Ba Jin writes a collection of essays published this year by Minzhong in Shanghai. It’s entitled Wuzhengfuzhuyi yu shiji wenti 无政府主义与实际 问题 (Anarchism and reality: A problem). [Lang (1967), 342.]

Describing the contemporary climate, Ba Jin writes that anarchists in China are few. They have no centralized organization and only one publishing house. Besides scattered small groups and periodicals, there is only the Young Anarcho-Communist League.

July 25: Min zhong publishes a final, double issue (Vol. 2, Nos. 6 & 7) before ceasing publication. [Chow (1963), 112.]

Ba Jin writes two pamphlets on Russian revolutionary women that are illegally published in Shanghai this year. One is Biography of Sofia Perevskaia and the other is Ten Russian Heroines (Lang (1967) describes the second as “biographies of ten women members of the Populist Movement”). [Lang (1967), 342.]

Ba Jin leaves for France.

Labor University is founded through cooperation between the anarchists and the Guomindang.


January: The Road to Freedom, Hippolyte Havel’s monthly anarchist magazine, publishes a submission from Ba Jin entitled “From a Chinese Comrade” in volume 4, issue 6, on page 2. [Lang (1967), 344.]

May: “Ganxie guomindangren zhengzheng dai deng guanggao” ” 感谢国 民党人铮铮代登广告” (Many thanks to Nationalist Party member Zhengzheng for putting in an advertisement for us) by Ba Jin is featured on pages 9 and 10 of the 10th issue of Pingdeng [Probably 平等 “Equality” -DC] [Lang (1967), 344-5.]

Ziyou 自由 in Shanghai publishes volume 1 of a Chinese translation of Kropotkin‘s Ethics: Origins and Development as Kelupaotejin 克魯 泡特金,Renshengzhexue: Qi qiyuan ji qi fazhan 人生哲学:其起源及其发展. Ba Jin writes the translator’s preface and the introduction. [Lang (1967), 344.]

Ziyou Congshu 自由丛书 (Freedom Library) publishes pamphlets critical of both the GMD and the CCP.

Anarchists from Korea, China, Vietnam, Taiwan, and Japan organize the Eastern Anarchist Federation. They publish a newsletter called Dongbang(Korean) 东方 (The East). [<http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/01ref.htm#19/1929>, accessed May 17th, 2008.]


June 1: Korean Anarchist Federation of China members meet in Beijing and decide to consolidate their membership and their resources to Manchuria. [<http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/AnarchistTimeline3.htm>, accessed May 17th, 2008.]

August: Korean anarchists in Shimin organize a locality anarchistically. [<http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/06ref.htm#01/1929, accessed May 17th, 2008.] See also [Jason Adams, “Non-Western Anarchisms: Rethinking the Global Context” (1993).]

November: Vol. 10, No. 5 of Minduo is published. [Chow (1963), 32.]

Ba Jin‘s novel, Miewang 灭亡 (Destruction) is published. It was republished in Beijing in 1950 by Kaiming and was 226 pages long. [Lang (1967), 338.]

The Ziyou 自由 group in Shanghai publishes a collection of essays by Ba JinDuandoutai shang 断头台上 (On the scaffold [At the guillotine -DC]). It is 10+314 pages long. [Lang (1967), 342.]

The second volume of Ba Jin‘s translation of Kropotkin‘s Ethics: Origins and Development is published in Shanghai by Ziyou 自由. The first volume was published one year prior. [Lang (1967), 344.]


Ba Jin‘s novel Siqu de taiyang 死去的 太阳 (The Setting Sun) is published. It was republished in Shanghai by Kaiming in 1949 and was 148 pages long. [Lang (1967), 338.]

Ba Jin‘s work, Cong zibenzhuyi dao annaqizhuyi 從资本主义到安拿起主义 (From Capitalism to Anarchism), is published by the Pingshe 平社 (Equality Society) in San Francisco. It is apparently 7+318 pages long. [Lang (1967), 342.] ||

One response to “A Broad Time-line of Anarchism in May Fourth Era China: 1908-1930

  • A Broad Time-line of Anarchism in May Fourth Era China: 1908-1930 « Rekolektiv:

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